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Rosacea

Rosacea presents with redness, dilated blood vessels, papules, pustules and cysts of the face.  Rosacea affects more than 16 million people in the U.S.  Unlike acne, there are no comedones (whiteheads and blackheads).  It is more common in people with fair complexions but can be seen in all skin types.  It is possible to have both rosacea and acne. Many people with rosacea have ocular rosacea with concomitant inflammation of the eyes and eyelids. The etiology of rosacea is unknown; however, several hypotheses include inflammatory reactions to blood vessel dilatation, microbial organisms and reactive oxygen species. Other theories include antimicrobial peptide dysfunction and loss of cutaneous barrier function. There are many trigger factors associated with rosacea flares including: sunlight, alcohol, spicy foods, hot temperature food and drink, overheating, etc.

Treatment

Most patients with rosacea can benefit from daily, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a moisturizer. Treatment often involves various topical medications including antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and retinoids. Some patients, for adequate control of their rosacea, require oral antibiotics and occasionally a short course of steroids. Recalcitrant rosacea may benefit from laser treatment and Accutane.